Translation of the grant of privileges to merchants in 1229: Istvan Szepesi, "Reflecting the Nation: The Historiography of Hanseatic Institutions. While older scholarship presented this period as a time of total disorder and near-anarchy, new research has reassessed the German lands in the 15th century in a more positive light. Peasants were increasingly required to pay tribute to their lands. The conflict between several papal claimants (two anti-popes and the "legitimate" Pope) ended only with the Council of Constance (1414–1418); after 1419 the Papacy directed much of its energy to suppressing the Hussites. Le Saint-Empire romain disparaît le 6 août 1806 lorsque l’empereur François II dépose sa couronne pour n'être plus qu'empereur d'Autriche et, comme l'écrit Ferdinand Lot, le 6 août 1806, date de l'abandon par François II de sa qualité d'empereur des Romains, peut être considéré comme l'acte de décès légal de l'Empire romain . The German dualism between Austria and Prussia dominated the empire's history after 1740. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V. The empire then became fatally divided along religious lines, with the north, the east, and many of the major cities – Strasbourg, Frankfurt, and Nuremberg – becoming Protestant while the southern and western regions largely remained Catholic. A further important constitutional move at Roncaglia was the establishment of a new peace mechanism for the entire empire, the Landfrieden, with the first imperial one being issued in 1103 under Henry IV at Mainz. Objets associés à SAINT-EMPIRE ROMAIN GERMANIQUE : abonné : oeuvres (Sans Date Actif) CARTE HISTORIQUE .  The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.  By the middle of the 8th century, however, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. With these drastic changes, much discussion emerged in the 15th century about the Empire itself. In 802, Irene was overthrown and exiled by Nikephoros I and henceforth there were two Roman Emperors. :109 The Pope, in turn, excommunicated the king, declared him deposed, and dissolved the oaths of loyalty made to Henry. According to an overgenerous contemporary estimate of the Austrian War Archives for the first decade of the 18th century, the Empire, including Bohemia and the Spanish Netherlands, had a population of close to 28 million with a breakdown as follows:, German demographic historians have traditionally worked on estimates of the population of the Holy Roman Empire based on assumed population within the frontiers of Germany in 1871 or 1914. In 1190, Frederick participated in the Third Crusade and died in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia..  The Aulic Council held standing over many judicial disputes of state, both in concurrence with the Imperial Chamber court and exclusively on their own. Philip thought he had the backing of the French Pope Clement V (established at Avignon in 1309), and that his prospects of bringing the empire into the orbit of the French royal house were good. Also it was recommended that their sons learn the imperial languages – German, Latin, Italian, and Czech.. Die Reichs-Matrikel aller Kreise Nebst den Usual-Matrikeln des Kaiserlichen und Reichskammergerichts, Ulm 1796. While concentrated on establishing a modern, centralized state in Sicily, he was mostly absent from Germany and issued far-reaching privileges to Germany's secular and ecclesiastical princes: in the 1220 Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis, Frederick gave up a number of regalia in favour of the bishops, among them tariffs, coining, and fortification. Now, although excommunicated, Frederick led the Sixth Crusade in 1228, which ended in negotiations and a temporary restoration of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Largest cities or towns of the Empire by year: Roman Catholicism constituted the single official religion of the Empire until 1555. Instead, to secure their own position from the threat of being deposed, emperors were forced to grant more and more autonomy to local rulers, both nobles and bishops. For the first time, the permanent nature of the division between the Christian Churches of the empire was more or less assumed.. LCNA 1985. Les conditions de l'élection sont fixées en 1356 par l'empereur Charles IV dans une « Bulle d'or » qui limite à sept les Princes Électeurs.  A foreign pope and foreign papal officers were seen with suspicion by Roman nobles, who were led by Crescentius II to revolt. En 1486, tandis que se développent partout en Europe les consciences nationales, on en vient à parler du Saint Empire romain germanique ou mieux encore du Saint Empire romain de la nation germanique Charles Quint, élu en 1519, est le dernier empereur à recevoir la … According to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm "spewed forth kinglets", and each part elected a kinglet "from its own bowels". The representation of the Free Cities at the Diet had become common since the late Middle Ages. However, while by the end of the 15th century the Empire was still in theory composed of three major blocks – Italy, Germany, and Burgundy – in practice only the Kingdom of Germany remained, with the Burgundian territories lost to France and the Italian territories, ignored in the Imperial Reform, although formally part of the Empire, were splintered into numerous de facto independent territorial entities. The only Free Imperial Cities still existing as states within Germany are Hamburg and Bremen.  Instead of personal duties, money increasingly became the common means to represent economic value in agriculture. He became afraid to act when the Catholic Church was forcibly reasserting control in Austria and Hungary, and the Protestant princes became upset over this. The third class was the Council of Imperial Cities, which was divided into two colleges: Swabia and the Rhine. Treaty of Verdun, Treaty of Prüm, Treaty of Meerssen and Treaty of Ribemont), and over the course of the later ninth century the title of Emperor was disputed by the Carolingian rulers of Western Francia and Eastern Francia, with first the western king (Charles the Bald) and then the eastern (Charles the Fat), who briefly reunited the Empire, attaining the prize; however, after the death of Charles the Fat in 888 the Carolingian Empire broke apart, and was never restored. Although some procedures and institutions had been fixed, for example by the Golden Bull of 1356, the rules of how the king, the electors, and the other dukes should cooperate in the Empire much depended on the personality of the respective king. He was the first of the Habsburgs to hold a royal title, but he was never crowned emperor. Silesia became part of the Holy Roman Empire as the result of the local Piast dukes' push for autonomy from the Polish Crown. During the Hohenstaufen period, German princes facilitated a successful, peaceful eastward settlement of lands that were uninhabited or inhabited sparsely by West Slavs. This continued after Frederick was crowned Emperor in 1220. Pope Innocent III, who feared the threat posed by a union of the empire and Sicily, was now supported by Frederick II, who marched to Germany and defeated Otto. :101–134 In the wake of the Cluniac Reforms, this involvement was increasingly seen as inappropriate by the Papacy. L'empire se cantonne à l'Allemagne et son titulaire n'a véritablement d'autorité que sur les possessions héréditaires des Habsbourg. Still, Otto II formed marital ties with the east when he married the Byzantine princess Theophanu. The Peace of Westphalia abrogated that principle by stipulating that the official religion of a territory was to be what it had been on 1 January 1624, considered to have been a "normal year". He lavishly spread French money in the hope of bribing the German electors. Also in 1512, the Empire received its new title, the Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation ("Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation"). German-speaking farmers, traders, and craftsmen from the western part of the Empire, both Christians and Jews, moved into these areas. The process varied greatly among the various lands and was most advanced in those territories that were almost identical to the lands of the old Germanic tribes, e.g., Bavaria. In the 12th century the Hanseatic League established itself as a commercial and defensive alliance of the merchant guilds of towns and cities in the empire and all over northern and central Europe. , Until the 15th century the elected emperor was crowned and anointed by the Pope in Rome, among some exceptions in Ravenna, Bologna and Reims. In 1212, King Ottokar I (bearing the title "king" since 1198) extracted a Golden Bull of Sicily (a formal edict) from the emperor Frederick II, confirming the royal title for Ottokar and his descendants and the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a kingdom. One estimate based on the frontiers of Germany in 1870 gives a population of some 15–17 million around 1600, declined to 10–13 million around 1650 (following the Thirty Years' War). The Imperial Diet (Reichstag, or Reichsversammlung) was not a legislative body as we understand it today, as its members envisioned it more like a central forum where it was more important to negotiate than to decide. The Holy Roman Empire was neither a centralized state nor a nation-state. The empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon at Austerlitz (see Treaty of Pressburg). Otto III's former mentor Antipope John XVI briefly held Rome, until the Holy Roman Emperor seized the city. Henry II died in 1024 and Conrad II, first of the Salian Dynasty, was elected king only after some debate among dukes and nobles. More recent estimates use less outdated criteria, but they remain guesswork. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains. 65 ecclesiastical states with 14 percent of the total land area and 12 percent of the population; 45 dynastic principalities with 80 percent of the land and 80 percent of the population; 60 dynastic counties and lordships with 3 percent of the land and 3.5 percent of the population; 60 imperial towns with 1 percent of the land and 3.5 percent of the population; Imperial knights' territories, numbering into the several hundreds, with 2 percent of the land and 1 percent of the population. , The Habsburg royal family had its own diplomats to represent its interests. It was divided into three classes. The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. After Rudolf's death in 1291, Adolf and Albert were two further weak kings who were never crowned emperor. Meanwhile, the German princes had elected another king, Rudolf of Swabia. In addition, a Jewish minority existed in the Holy Roman Empire. 1378 (Germany at the death of emperor Charles IV.) The first class, the Council of Electors, consisted of the electors, or the princes who could vote for King of the Romans.  In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress. Saint-Empire romain de la nation germanique (literally “ Roman Holy-Empire of the German[ic] Nation ”) Pronunciation . Fearing Frederick's concentration of power, the Pope finally excommunicated the Emperor. Avant de dresser la liste des empereurs dits du Saint-Empire romain germanique, il convient de dresser la liste des rois des Francs carolingiens arborant le titre d'empereur des Romains, ce titre ayant été porté initialement par ceux-ci avant ceux-là. Une lettre pour tous les passionnés d'Histoire. the territory of today's Poland and Czech Republic) became German-speaking. Charlemagne adopted the formula Renovatio imperii Romanorum ("renewal of the Roman Empire"). The German mediatization was the series of mediatizations and secularizations that occurred between 1795 and 1814, during the latter part of the era of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic Era.  Kings traveled between residences (called Kaiserpfalz) to discharge affairs, though each king preferred certain places; in Otto's case, this was the city of Magdeburg. Otto prevailed for a while after Philip was murdered in a private squabble in 1208 until he began to also claim Sicily. The "constitution" of the Empire still remained largely unsettled at the beginning of the 15th century. L’époque du Saint-Empire romain germanique On pense que la ville de Lyon a de tout temps été française or elle ne l’est devenue qu’en l’an 1312, à la fin du règne de Philippe le Bel. This state developed into modern Germany. The actual end of the empire came in several steps. This comprehensive list included public roads, tariffs, coining, collecting punitive fees, and the investiture or seating and unseating of office holders. German kings had been elected since the 9th century; at that point they were chosen by the leaders of the five most important tribes (the Salian Franks of Lorraine, Ripuarian Franks of Franconia, Saxons, Bavarians, and Swabians). Other historians who work on estimates of the population of the early modern Empire suggest the population declined from 20 million to some 16–17 million by 1650. When the Salian dynasty ended with Henry V's death in 1125, the princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Lothair, the moderately powerful but already old Duke of Saxony. Il a été fondé au Xe siècle par Otton Ier et a disparu le 6 août 1806 par la volonté de Napoléon Ier. Instead, it was divided into dozens – eventually hundreds – of individual entities governed by kings, dukes, counts, bishops, abbots, and other rulers, collectively known as princes.  In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, and later gained the sanction of the Pope. Each college had one vote. Il prend alors le titre de roi de Germanie et « roi des Romains ». The Council of Princes was divided into two "benches", one for secular rulers and one for ecclesiastical ones. This only changed after the end of the Salian dynasty in the 12th century. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476. Nevertheless, some members of the imperial estates (notably Berthold von Henneberg, archbishop of Mainz) sought a more centralized and institutionalized approach to regulating peace and justice, as (supposedly) had existed in earlier centuries of the Empire's history. Here, the king and the dukes agreed on four bills, commonly referred to as the Reichsreform (Imperial Reform): a set of legal acts to give the disintegrating Empire some structure. , A credible estimate for 1800 gives 27 million inhabitants for the Empire, with an overall breakdown as follows:. Not all imperial territories were included within the imperial circles, even after 1512; the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were excluded, as were Switzerland, the imperial fiefs in northern Italy, the lands of the Imperial Knights, and certain other small territories like the Lordship of Jever. Francis' House of Habsburg-Lorraine survived the demise of the empire, continuing to reign as Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary until the Habsburg empire's final dissolution in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. L'histoire du Saint-Empire est liée à l'histoire générale de l'Europe et a ses origines dans l'histoire de l'Antiquité classique. :101–34 Henry IV repudiated the Pope's interference and persuaded his bishops to excommunicate the Pope, whom he famously addressed by his born name "Hildebrand", rather than his regnal name "Pope Gregory VII". Source. Il voulait, comme Charlemagne exercer sa suprématie sur l'Église. Earlier, the Empire's strength (and finances) greatly relied on the Empire's own lands, the so-called Reichsgut, which always belonged to the king of the day and included many Imperial Cities. The gradual Germanization of these lands was a complex phenomenon that should not be interpreted in the biased terms of 19th-century nationalism. Le duc reçoit ce jour-là du pape le titre d' « Empereur et Auguste » en récompense des services rendus à la papauté et de ses victoires sur les envahisseurs hongrois. Maximilian was succeeded in 1576 by Rudolf II, a strange man who preferred classical Greek philosophy to Christianity and lived an isolated existence in Bohemia.  Princes, nobles and/or cities collaborated to keep the peace by adhering to collective treaties which stipulated methods for resolving disputes (ad hoc courts and arbitration) and joint military measures to defeat outlaws and declarers of feuds. The larger principalities in the HRE, beginning around 1648, also did the same. :109 The king found himself with almost no political support and was forced to make the famous Walk to Canossa in 1077,:122–24 by which he achieved a lifting of the excommunication at the price of humiliation.  In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By this point the territory of Charlemagne had been divided into several territories (cf. 316–317. The 1232 document marked the first time that the German dukes were called domini terræ, owners of their lands, a remarkable change in terminology as well. Simultaneously, the Catholic Church experienced crises of its own, with wide-reaching effects in the Empire.  For a list of Reichsstände in 1792, see List of Imperial Diet participants (1792). These sites served however only as the individual residence for a particular sovereign. The medieval idea of unifying all Christendom into a single political entity, with the Church and the Empire as its leading institutions, began to decline. Under the son and successor of Frederick Barbarossa, Henry VI, the Hohenstaufen dynasty reached its apex. Henry VII was crowned king at Aachen on 6 January 1309, and emperor by Pope Clement V on 29 June 1312 in Rome, ending the interregnum. These rights were now explicitly rooted in Roman Law, a far-reaching constitutional act. Henry gave only lackluster support to Frederick's policies, and in a critical situation during the Italian wars, Henry refused the Emperor's plea for military support. D'autre part, l'Empire d'Orient, transporté à Constantinople par Constantin, fut la continuation légale de l'Empire romain, puisque l'Empire d'Occident ne s'était pas … At no time could the Emperor simply issue decrees and govern autonomously over the Empire. The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. After returning to Germany, an embittered Frederick opened proceedings against the Duke, resulting in a public ban and the confiscation of all his territories. It was slower in those scattered territories that were founded through imperial privileges.  This was an attempt to abolish private feuds, between the many dukes and other people, and to tie the Emperor's subordinates to a legal system of jurisdiction and public prosecution of criminal acts – a predecessor of the modern concept of "rule of law". These were partly caused by the explosion in population, and they also concentrated economic power at strategic locations. Following the Peace of Augsburg, the official religion of a territory was determined by the principle cuius regio, eius religio according to which a ruler's religion determined that of his subjects. It took a few more decades for the new regulation to gain universal acceptance and for the new court to begin functioning effectively; the Imperial Circles were finalized in 1512. Actuellement, la couronne est exposée au 'Hofburg de Vienne. In 1312, Henry VII of the House of Luxembourg was crowned as the first Holy Roman Emperor since Frederick II. Higher-ranking princes had individual votes, while lower-ranking princes were grouped into "colleges" by geography. "Mediatization" was the process of annexing the lands of one imperial estate to another, often leaving the annexed some rights. In many cases, this took several years while the King was held up by other tasks: frequently he first had to resolve conflicts in rebellious northern Italy or was quarreling with the Pope himself. The kingdoms were: Kings often employed bishops in administrative affairs and often determined who would be appointed to ecclesiastical offices.  The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, bishops, and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Pour la période postérieure, c'est-à-dire de 476 à 1453, il s'agit de la The Teutonic Knights were invited to Prussia by Duke Konrad of Masovia to Christianize the Prussians in 1226. The Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine was replaced by a new union, the German Confederation in 1815, following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. The Council of Imperial Cities was not fully equal with the others; it could not vote on several matters such as the admission of new territories.  Due to a combination of (1) the traditions of dynastic succession in Aragon, which permitted maternal inheritance with no precedence for female rule; (2) the insanity of Charles's mother, Joanna of Castile; and (3) the insistence by his remaining grandfather, Maximilian I, that he take up his royal titles, Charles initiated his reign in Castile and Aragon, a union which evolved into Spain, in conjunction with his mother. The imperial estates comprised: A sum total of 1,500 Imperial estates has been reckoned. For example, the estates of the Imperial Knights were formally mediatized in 1806, having de facto been seized by the great territorial states in 1803 in the so-called Rittersturm.
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